Portrait by Robert Fulton,
owned by Mr. S.L.M. Barlow of NYC From the original
painting by Chappel in the possession of the publisher.
Johnson, Fry & Co.
publishers, New York. Entered according to act of
Congress AD 1863 by Johnson, Fry & Co. in the
clerks office of the district court of the southern
district of NY. NYC. An engraving of this picture
was sued as frontispiece to the deluxe editon of
the Columbiad. Frick Art Reference Library
Joel Barlow , Poet, Patriot,
Written by Edson Barlow / deceased
This spring, on June 28, 1998, there
was a modest ceremony in a village in Poland. Its purpose
to put a bronze biographical tablet dedicated to Joel
Barlow, one of our earliest American diplomats, in
the churchyard at Zarnowiec, Poland, where he died
and was buried in 1812. The event is organized and
the tablet donated by The Joel Barlow Memorial Fund,
in cooperation with the American Center for Polish
Culture and the Diplomatic and Consular Officers Retired
(DACOR) of the U.S. State Department.
The following account of Joel Barlow's life was written
for the bronze tablet dedication ceremony by Leslie
Hill-Levitt Latham of West Redding, Connecticut.
"Joel Barlow was born on March
24, 1754, and raised at Redding, Connecticut, by his
parents, Samuel and Esther (Hull) Barlow. He was a
fifth generation descendent of John and Ann Barlow
(Joel-5, Samuel-4, Samuel-3, John-2, John-1) who came
to America and settled at Fairfield, Connecticut, about
He graduated from Yale in 1778. Too
liberal in his thinking to be given a teaching post
at Yale, he took an additional Divinity course and
joined Washington's army as a chaplain, serving for
three years until the end of the Revolution. (He slipped
home from his army duties long enough to marry Ruth
Baldwin, the sister of a Yale classmate, on December
26, 1779; they married in secret because of her father's
initial objection.) "At the close of the war in
1782 the couple moved to Hartford, Connecticut, where
Joel joined in publishing the magazine American Mercury,
wrote political pamphlets, satires, and poetry. He
was one of the group of satirical writers - mostly
Yale men -called the 'Hartford Wits.' At that time
he finally completed and published the first version
of his American epic in verse, The
Vision of Columbus
It is said that in this work he was the first writer
in English to use the words 'civil', 'civic' and 'civilization,
with their modern meanings; also in it he projected
a future international council very much like the United
Nations of today, dedicated to peacekeeping, cultural
exchange, and development of the arts.
"In 1786, Barlow studied law and was
admitted to the Bar. He worked as a promoter for the Scioto
Land Company (a huge tract of Ohio wilderness opened by the
government for settlement.) In 1788 Barlow went to Paris
to promote the sale of the Scioto Land to European emigrants. A
large group of bourgeois French refugees traveled hopefully
to settle in Ohio but no preparations had been made by the
American promoters for their reception, and they met terrible
privations in the wilderness.
By the time Ruth joined her husband in Paris in 1790, the American organizers of the Scioto Company were exposed as profiteering frauds; however, Barlow was officially audited and proven innocent. (The colony, named Gallipolis, survived despite the hardships; but Barlow's reputation with his own countrymen had been seriously damaged.) "Barlow had been in Paris at the fall of the Bastille on July 14 1789. He was a friend of Thomas Paine and other revolutionary sympathizers, English and American. His major tract Advice to the Privileged Orders and verse-satire The Conspiracy of Kings were written in London, where he and Ruth had gone to avoid the Jacobin disorders. The 'Advice' so offended the British government that it banned the book and tried to arrest Barlow, who fled into hiding in Paris. However, his Letter to the National Convention of France (proposals for a new French constitution) so impressed the Assembly delegates that they made him an honorary citizen of the new Republic in 1792, an honor he shared with Washington, Hamilton, Madison and Paine. In the final throes of the Terror, when Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed in 1793, Ruth was still safe in London, and Barlow was in the southeast of France helping friends organize the Savoy, newly captured from Italy, as a political division of the new Republic.
"Fluent in French, sympathetic to
the new French republic, and successful in business, the
Barlows were popular with the reformers, intelligentsia,
and such scientific innovators as the balloonist Montgolfier.
They were close also to Robert Fulton, who arrived in France
in 1797, and worked for some years on the prototypes of
his steamboat, torpedo boat, and other engineering projects.
Fulton later did the illustrations for a large, handsome,
second version of Barlow's epic, heavily revised and retitled
The Columbiad, published in Philadelphia in 1807.
"In 1796, in Washington's second term, Barlow resolved
our first hostage crisis. He was sent to Algiers as consul
to help with implementation of our peace treaty with that
state and to secure the release of more than 100 American
seamen some of whom had been held captive by the Algerian
corsairs since 1785. It required great patience and diplomatic
skill on his part not to mention payment of substantial
sums to local officials, but he succeeded where others
had failed. He stayed on as consul for a year after the
hostages departed and returned to Paris in 1797.
"In 1805,after 18 years abroad, the Barlows returned
to America, hoping to spend the rest of their lives at
home. Thomas Jefferson wanted Barlow to write an American
history. In 1807, at Jefferson's urging, they moved to
Washington to a house and small estate Barlow named 'Kalorama,'
'beautiful view' in Greek. However, in 1811 President James
Madison appointed Barlow as Minister to France. His task
was to negotiate for compensation for French damages to
American shipping, and to make a trade treaty. Reluctant,
but always desirous of serving his country, Barlow took
his wife, his nephew Thomas as secretary, and returned
to France in 1811, only to meet with many delays Napoleon
was busy making war on almost every nation in Europe.
"Finally, the Emperor, engaged in a winter campaign
against Russia, summoned Barlow to meet him in Poland,
at Wilna (now Vilnius). But the French armies were being
utterly defeated by the Russians and the Russian winter.
Napoleon fled south, ignoring his appointment. His staff,
Barlow, Thomas, and the other diplomats, fled through the
freezing weather toward Germany to escape the pursuing
Cossacks, missing Napoleon, who hurried straight on toward
France. Barlow died of pneumonia in the tiny village of
Zarnowiec, between Warsaw and Krakow, on December 24, 1812.
(There is disagreement about the date; the existing church
tablet in Poland gives it as December 26.) It took his
nephew more than two weeks to bring the news of his death
to Ruth in Paris, and it was three months before the news
reached America. Joel Barlow was mourned widely in France,
but President Madison was more distressed by the lack of
the treaty than the loss of the man. Perhaps this diplomat,
patriot, and man of letters had stayed abroad too long."
Photograph of the original plaque and guest
thumbnail to few full image
|Extracted from: Colonial and Revolutionary Families
of Pennsylvania Volumes I-III
Joel, born March 24, 1754, first entered Dartmouth
College, but was graduated with honors from Yale, class
of 1778, a classmate of Noah Webster. He early showed
talent of a superior quality.
He was an intimate friend of Thomas Paine,
who probably at that time had not become imbued with
studied law and divinity, and after being licensed as minister
of the Congregational church became a chaplain
in the Revolutionary army, serving until the close of the
war. In 1773 he opened a law office in Hartford and became partner with Elisha
Babcock in editing The American Mercury. In
1785 he was chosen by the general association
of the Congregational church to revise the
Psalmsof Dr. Watts. In 1787 he published
his "Vision of Columbus". His most
popular poem was "Hasty Pudding", a
work in three cantos showing decided poetic genius,
written in France in 1793, where he was representing
the "Scotia Land Company". In 1795 he was
appointed by President Washington consul to Algiers, where
he effected a very important treaty, also one with Tripoli. In
1805 he returned to the United States and settled
near Washington, D. C., where he purchased beautiful "Kalorama" afterwards
the home of his favorite nephew, Thomas
, and his wife, Frances Anica "Preble" Barlow.
In 1808 he published his greatest poem "The
Columbiad" which was republished in London
He was engaged in writing a History of the United States
in 1812, when he was appointed United States minister
to France. While on his way to confer with Emperor
Napoleon at Wilna, he was seized with a fatal illness and died
at Zarwanica, Poland, October 02, 1812. He married Ruth Baldwin,
of New Haven, Connecticut, a sister of Honorable
Henry Baldwin, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Joel Barlow US Consul
Gen of Algiers ©National Portait Gallery
Smithsonian Institution Art Resource
TREATY OF TRIPOLI - 1797
Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States
of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripol, of Barbary
There is a firm and perpetual Peace and friendship between
the United States of America and the Bey and subjects of
Tripoli of Barbary, made by the free consent of both parties,
and guaranteed by the most potent Dey and regency
If any goods belonging to any nation with which either of the parties is at
war shall be loaded on board of vessels belonging to the other party they shall
pass free, and no attempt shall be made to take or detain them
If any citizens, subjects or effects belonging to either party shall be found
on board a prize vessel taken from an enemy by the other party, such citizens
or subjects shall be set at liberty, and the effects restored to the owners.
Proper passports are to be given to all vessels of both parties, by which they
are to be known. And, considering the distance between the two countries,
eighteen months from the date of his treaty shall be allowed for procuring
such passports. During this interval the other papers belonging to such vessels
shall be sufficient for their protection.
A citizen or subject of either party having bought a prize vessel condemned
by the other party or by any other nation, the certificate of condemnation
and bill of sale shall be a sufficient passport for such vessel for one year;
this being a reasonable time for her to procure a proper passport.
Vessels of either party putting into the ports of the other and having need
of provissions or other supplies, they shall be furnished at the market price.
And if any such vessel shall so put in from a disasterat sea and have occasion
to repair, she shall be at liberty to land and reembark her cargo without paying
any duties. But in no case shall she be compelled to land her cargo.
Should a vessel of either party be cast on the shore of the other, all proper
assistance shall be given to her and her people; no pillage shall be allowed;
the property shall remain at the disposition of the owners, and the crew
protected and succoured till they can be sent to their country.
If a vessel of either party should be attacked by an enemy within gun-shot
of the forts of the other she shall be defended as much as possible. If she
be in port she shall not be seized or attacked when it is in the power of the
other party to protect her. And when she proceeds to sea no enemy shall be
allowed to pursue her from the same port within twenty four hours after her
The commerce between the United States and Tripoli, the protection to be given
to merchants, masters of vessels and seamen, - the reciprocal right of establishing
consuls in each country, and the privileges, immunities and jurisdictions to
be enjoyed by such consuls, are declared to be on the same footing with those
of the most favoured nations respectively.
The money and presents demanded by the Bey of Tripoli as a full and satisfactory
consideration on his part and on the part of his subjects for this treaty of
perpetual peace and friendship are acknowledged to have been recieved by him
previous to his signing the same, according to a reciept which is hereto annexed,
except such part as is promised on the part of the United States to be delivered
and paid by them on the arrival of their Consul in Tripoly, of which part a
note is ikewise hereto annexed. And no presence of any periodical tribute or
farther payment is ever to be made by either party.
As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded
on the Christian Religion, - as it has in itself no character of enmity against
the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen,- and as the said States never
have entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mehomitan nation,
it is declared by theparties that no pretext arising from religious opinions
shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two
In case of any dispute arising from a notation of any of the articles of this
treaty no appeal shall be made to arms, nor shall war be declared on any pretext
whatever. But if the (consul residing at the place where the dispute shall
happen) shall not be able to settle the same, an amicable referrence shall
be made to the mutual friend of the parties the Dey of Algiers, the parties
here- by engaging to abide by his decision. And he by virtue of his signature
to this treaty engages for himself and successors to declare the justice of
the case according to the true interpretation of the treaty, and to use all
the means in his power to enforce the observance of the same.
Signed and sealed at Tripoli of Barbary
the 3d day of Jumad in the year of the Higera 1211- corresponding
with the 4th day of Novr 1796 by JUSSUF BASHAW MAHOMET Bey
SOLIMAN Kaya MAMET Treasurer
GALIL Genl of the Troops AMET Minister
of Marine MAHOMET Coml of the city
AMET Chamberlain MAMET Secretary
ALLY Chief of the Divan
Signed and sealed at Algiers the 4th day
of Argib 1211- corresponding with the 3d day of January
HASSAN BASHAW Dey and by the Agent
plenipotentiary of the United States of America [Seal]
I, Joel Barlow, agent and consul general of the United
States of America for the city and Kingdom of Algiers,
certify and attest that the seal standing uppermost on
the page next but two preceding this [in the Arabic order]
is that of the Regency of Algiers and that the signature
above it is that of Hassan Bashaw Dey.
In testimony whereof I sign these presents
with my hand and affix thereto the seal of the consulate
of the United States at Algiers this 4th day of January
1797. [Seal] JOEL BARLOW
From the original painting by Chappel
in the possession of the publisher. Johnson, Fry & Co. publishers, New
York. Entered according to act of Congress AD 1863 by Johnson,
Fry & Co. in the clerks office of the district court
of the southern district of NY.
Portrait by Charles Wilson Peale,
1807 Used by permission of the owner, Joel Barlow of
Wash D.C., a descendant of Joel Barlow Ankers
The Joel Barlow Commemoration Committee of Redding Connecticut
invites your participation, Saturday, June 22, 1935, in honoring
the life and work of Joel Barlow, Poet, Patriot, Statesman,
born in Redding, March 24th, 1754, son of Samuel and Esther
(Hull) Barlow, died in Zarnowiec, Poland, December 26, 1812,
in active services as United States Minister Plenipotentiary
Program (Daylight Saving Time)
11:30 a.m. Ridgewood Inn, Redding Ridge. "Hasty Pudding" Breakfast:
old New England Style.
Short talks after breakfast on "Joel Barlow, Prophet
and Dreamer;" "The Redding Boy" by Hon.
Daniel S. Sanford of Redding, Conn.; "The Hartford
Wit and Editor" by Robert E. Stevenson, Editor of
the Waterbury Republican, Waterbury, Conn.; "Yale
Alumnus and Man of Letters" by Chauncey Brewater Tinker,
Sterling Professor of Literature, Yale University; and
(Make reservations with Chairman, Mrs. D.S. Sanford, Ridgewood
Inn., Redding Ridge. Seventy-five cents per person, paid
before June 15, as accomodations are limited.)
3:00 p.m. Redding Green at Old Town House. (Center Church
in case of rain.)
Address by His Excellency, the French Ambassador to the
United States, Andre de Laboulaye.
Address: "Joel Barlow's Service to Peace, Rev. Dr.
B.S. Winchester, of Georgetown, Conn.
"The Recessional", Kipling: Sung by Redding children.
4:00 p.m. Procession to old Congregational Burying Ground
Hymn: America the Beautiful.
Address, by the Representative of the Government of Poland. "Joel
Presentation of Memorial Tablet, by Mrs. Bessie Barlow
Crane, on behalf of kinsmen and fellow townsmen.
Acceptance: First Selectman George W. Banks.
Children strew flowers.
Pledge of faither in Freedom and Democracy, by Niel Sanford,
Registrar, Bard College, of Columbia University.
Singing: "Faith of Our Fathers."
During the preliminaries for this commemorations, kinsmen
of Joel Barlow have expressed a desire that a Genealogy
of the descendants of John Barlow of Fairfield, Conn. (d.
1674) be published. A considerable amount of material for
this purpose was collected some years ago, by a member
of the family. It can be amplified and brought down to
date by co-operation of the kinsmen. Please send data to
Miss Clara M. Hill, R.F.D., Ridgewood, Conn.
Those desiring to share in the gift of the tablet to the
Town, send contributions to Tablet Chairman, Mrs. Bessie
Barlow Crane, 300 West Main Street, Waterbury, Conn.
Those desiring to loan or give books, manuscripts, pictures
or maps for the exhibit June 22nd, or for the permanent
collection to remain in Redding Library, address Chairman
of Joel Barlow Loan Exhibit, Mrs. B.S. Winchester, Georgetown,
Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special
Collections Division Click
to view published image
Barlow High School Easton/Redding Connecticut
100 Black Rock Turnpike Redding, CT
(203) 938-2508 Redding / (203) 334-8003 Easton Fax:
Biographical Memoirs of Sebastion County
Arkansas / Concerning Joel Barlow's sister-in-law.
Clara Baldwin Bomford
Mrs. Martha A. "Dillard" Bomford was born in Arkansas in 1832, and
is a daughter of John Penn and Sallie Price "Moore" Dillard, both
of whom were born in Virginia.
They came from Virginia to Arkansas by water, landing at the mouth of the Arkansas
River, and from there went to Moore's Rock, on ponies and pack horses, which
place they reached in 1822.
While in Virginia they followed merchandising, but fter
coming to Arkansas engaged in farming.
In 1833 they commenced to keep a large boarding house
at Fort Gibson, Chickasaw Nation, for officers, and continued
it until 1840.
The father represented his county in the State Legislature,
and his union with Miss Moore was blessed in the birth
of twelve children, four of whom are still living: Mrs.
Elizabeth G. "Rosser", Mrs. Solomon F. Clark,
Mrs. M.A. Bomford and Mrs. Sarah P. Bossert.
Major Dillard, formerly of Fort Smith, was a brother of
Mrs. Bomford, and served through the Mexican War as captain
under Colonel Yell, and as major in the late war, Confederate
States Army, in General Fagan's brigade. John and Lucy "Penn" Dillard
were the grandparents of Mrs. Bomford, the grandmother
being a branch of the family of the famous William Penn.
The maternal grandparents, Benjamin and Polly "Price" Moore,
were Virginians, and moved to Arkansas in 1818.
Major B. Moore sent outthe first bale of cotton from this
part of the State, and raised the first tobacco.
Mrs. Bomford spent her early life in Sebastian County,
and attended school in Van Buren and Fort Smith, where
she acquired a good English education.
In 1851 she was married to Dr. George Erving Bomford,
who was born March 31, 1820, in Washington, D.C., the son
of Col. George and Clara "Baldwin" Bomford.
The former was chief of ordinance at Washington, and the
latter was a sister-in-law of Joel Barlow, the author.
Dr. Bomford was reared and educated in his native city,
read medicine under Dr. Wilson, and attended lectures at
Boston and Philadelphia, and received his diploma. He practiced
several years in Washington, then moved to Fort Smith,
Ark., in 1848, and immediately began practicing in that
He was post surgeon of Fort Smith before and during the
war, and was a Royal Arch Mason, a Democrat, and a member
of the Episcopal Church.
He has three sons: George D., of St. Louis, Mo., Erving,
a druggist of Fort Smith, and Henry, a plumber of Fort